Belonging slimily between dryness and wetness, slugs blur a seemingly elemental distinction, as do the mucous membranes lining the 62 Elizabeth Boa passages into and out of the body, which are ambiguously neither clearly inside nor outside.
When Isadora swallows a slug, as one might slurp down an oyster, she provides another example of contact with the disgusting which is liable to induce horrified laughter. Note too, swallowing one slug signals a quite different relation to the creature than a mass slaughter. Yet bodily border-crossings through slimy passageways, whether by gases, fluids or more solid items enveloped in mucous, are essential to life: exiting the womb; breathing; eating, drinking and expelling body waste; copulating. From antiquity on, however, gender ideology has tended to allocate dampness unequally between the sexes in a discourse of bodily difference.
Lust threatens the simple oppositions, however, inducing uncontrollable tumescence, then satiety and detumescence. Leon feels post-coital disgust of the sticky, clammy, smelly female body yet it is his fluids that most make moist. This is what Isadora teaches him in a striking lesson in erotics.
But Leon fails to remember the magical best climax of his life. The meanings attributed to sexual difference, it is implied, generate a comingling of lust and disgust which is largely impervious to rational argument. A proper man should be a technologist of sex who retains control over the body he skilfully works upon as well as over his own body as implement. Disgust masks lust incompatible with proper muscular manhood: Leon offers a dire case study of masculinity in Lust or disgust?
Horror of the female body is not limited to men, however. Secretly bulimic Martina is beautiful by the standards of contemporary body culture. To achieve her slim beauty and punish any incipient over-swelling, Martina eats then purges herself; like a plumber cleaning out a blocked pipe, she uses her finger as a tool to induce a flow in bursts of saliva and vomit.
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A gruesome metaphoric equivalence links the gobbets of stuff and brownish liquid Martina convulsively sicks up with the balls of waste and rusty water gurgling out of the plumbing. Like car maintenance or clearing drains, the normative aesthetics of female beauty require a technology of beauty maintenance which divides the smooth visible surface of the body from its innards and taboos bodily functions which our culture renders even more shamefully secret for women than for men.
The shameful secrets of the body which conventional aesthetics mask leak out most disgustingly in death. For a dead woman can inspire without distracting interruptions as no live person can. Drowned Ophelia is such a recurrent motif in post-Romantic painting and poetry. That Leon, a male writer who at the beginning of the novel displayed an obscene curiosity about a female Wasserleiche, should at the end become a Schlammleiche marks a decisive intervention by a woman author in the long history of male-authored representations of dead female bodies.
Representing Violence A primary borderland between self and other is the surface of the body. A dead body is helplessly open to curious probing whereas a live person generally is not, unless by mutual agreement or through violence. Poking a corpse with a stick to see how easily the skin tears is not the same as knifing or raping someone.
But as the memorable first episode of Regenroman signals, Leon stands on a line which leads in the direction of readiness to do violence against the bodily integrity of another. Leon refuses to think of the corpse as the mortal remains of a person, but is moved by a mix of impersonal scientific curiosity and perverse pleasure, like a schoolboy doing a lab experiment on a female human body rather than just a frog. Without simply equating them, the episode subliminally associates scientific curiosity, lust and violence. Drawing on the tradition of post-Enlightenment critique of the violent potential within technological and scientific culture, these suggested affinities also signal a critical exploration of pleasure in violence as a pervasive aspect of contemporary popular culture.
Quasi-scientific discourse first appears with the weather forecasts. The authoritative tone and specialist jargon suggest scientific objectivity, but from the start science is overlaid with the pathetic fallacy. The increasingly awful forecasts are funny, sinister and prophetic.
Much more than documents.
The prospect of catastrophe provides a real page-turning impetus. Like the Lust or disgust? Of course the men are not watching the real thing but a representation. Yet television animal programmes deploy the medium of film — the deer really did get torn apart. Regenroman does not directly address the contentious issue as to whether representation of violence for entertainment and the prevalence of violent crime are causally linked.
Rather it draws the complicit reader through a sequence of blackly comic representations pushed to a point, however, where pleasure may falter. For some moments of violence threaten to break through the controlling metaphors and conventions, provoking shock, in some readers perhaps rejection, but judging by the reviews, prompting many readers to at least reflect upon the nature of the violence and the manner of its representation.
- Nexus Point (The Fall of the Altairan Empire Book 1)!
- Creation Dans Tous Ses Etats (la) (Cheminements Interi.) (French Edition).
- Bernhard Schlink’s “Nazi” Novels and Their Films.
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The comic travesty of myth already commented on goes along with pointed deviations from the standard plotting of popular fiction: the female victim finds allies and fights back; personal revenge is not punished in turn to signal a restoration of order; the prime suspect is not guilty and the murder mystery is not solved; the ending is not happily reassuring; and so on. Feminists have long argued that representations of women as victims of male violence reinforce the powerful effects of gender stereotypes in shaping differing behavioural propensities in men and women, if not directly causing specific actions.
But the women fight back. The violence is not gratuitous, it is about women attempting to wrest back a form of control. But it is tied into the text as a whole through metaphors which link up with earlier motifs. How, or whether, such textual integration of the rape and the subsequent revenge by blowtorch 66 Elizabeth Boa works to render the representation of violence acceptable is crucial in evaluating Regenroman as an intervention in cultural politics. Regenroman is a good read yet it provocatively challenges readerly pleasure in fictional violence which the popular genres cater to.
Representations of violence in fiction aimed at a wide reading public must steer between Scylla and Charybdis if they are to keep an ethically minded yet pleasure-seeking readership on board. But too sanitised or too aestheticised a representation may be judged to trivialise or to glorify violence. Popular work treading such a tightrope will always be controversial, since different readers have different thresholds at which pleasure gives way to distress, rejection or critical reflection. It is not violence as such, but the disgustingly graphic details of vaginal and anal rape and enforced fellatio which make Regenroman provocative as an intervention in a contested cultural field and so liable to divide readers.
Kant does not explain further this ambiguous double response of lust impulse to consume and disgust impulse to reject. The analysis comes close to the common view that pornography similarly breaks through disinterested contemplation to stimulate sexual arousal.
Hence pornography may offer an umbrella category covering representations stimulating either lust or disgust. Anxiety about pornography, whether arousing lust directly or indirectly via disgust, turns on the fear that just as soft porn may induce arousal followed by sexual activity, so hard porn might, if not induce directly imitative behaviour, then at least weaken inhibition. In considering representations of violence, then, the category of the disgusting becomes problematic. Rather than serving critical ends, it may covertly pander to forbidden desires.
In effect, the passage comically deflates any tendency to indulge polymorphously perverse desires and it promotes understanding of animal behaviour, not just deer but even giant lizards, a theme developed in the different reactions of Martina and Leon to the salamander. Comic deflation is here the key device in representing violence to critical rather than pornographic effect. The episode of the rape, however, moves out of the prevailing comic mode. But it does continue the through-running technological metaphors.
The plumbing metaphor is thoroughly de-eroticising. One radical tradition in modernist writing celebrates violent breakthroughs from conventional aesthetic control as the post-Kantian sublime, the hyper-real thing in itself, the ultimate breaking asunder of the repressive order which generates the discontents of civilisation. Women were marginal, whether as maternal guardians of repressive order or a distraction from male bonding, or else their tabooed bodies served as the field of breakthrough. This is no breakthrough, but just an exercise in power more demeaning to the obedient agent than the hapless victim.
During the rape, Martina too feels a saving distance from her body, as if it were a machine, not her essence as a woman. When Harry condescendingly strokes her head, as if she were a dog, and congratulates her on being a truly beautiful woman, Martina does not care whether she is beautiful; this marks a shift from feminine subordination to an internalised, controlling male gaze.
Mirror, mirror on the wall, who is the fairest of us all?
Martina no longer cares. Normally nymphs flee the pursuit of the god Pan or his goaty minions. Leon ends up as an overweight nymph in flight who falls victim to the female deity of the marshland. Both are alienated conditions. The cross-overs do, however, subvert the imaginary power of age-old misogyny and the polarised meanings attributed to sexual difference under which men and women both suffer.
Whether the readership divides along gender lines in finding different bits of Regenroman unassimilable — rape, blowtorching, drowning in mud — would be an interesting question. The effects of texts depend heavily on the contexts different readers bring to bear; animal rights activists might find the bludgeoning, then drowning of Rocky hardest to take. The gendered reading proposed here suggests that Regenroman cools down or comically deflates the representation of violence performed by men upon women.
The representation of violence performed by women upon men can likewise be seen as counteracting female victimhood, though some readers may see merely a reinscription: a vigilante with a flame thrower is not the answer even if she is female. The sheer preposterousness of the revenge by blowtorch is, however, in my view grounds for defence. The femme fatale is another figure with a long history. Steamily sexy, her transgressive violence is always finally punished in a restoration of patriarchy, often by the police; The Postman Always Rings Twice or Double Indemnity are classic examples.
That the women here get away with murder counteracts such a tradition. Again the devil is in the detail: there is nothing steamily sexy about Kay, or the clumsy Lust or disgust? The only femme fatale is Isadora whose energetic love biting briefly lends her the bloody aspect of a fat vampire. That she looks so different from the Hollywood vamp, however, comically subverts a powerful tradition.
It is therefore satisfying that he gets his comeuppance. He serves too as a token male author done down by the female author of Regenroman, to the satisfaction of an implied female readership.
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Transvestite Kerbel turns out not to be a serial killer but nor is he much of a draw to experimentation with alternative lifestyles. Kay, a sympathetic but unsexy figure, does not do much for a lesbian continuum.
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More technically experimental, Entmannung does share some points of comparison with Regenroman, notably wholesale subversion of sexist culture, the theme of female violence, and a drastic representation of rape which unsettles the prevailing comic mode. Reinig achieves such a break more radically than Duve, in an intervention in cultural politics with a lesbian tendency. But the primary focus on matters erotic remains heterosexual.